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From 1 through 30 November 2019, the National IHR Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported 10 additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) infection and one associated deaths. The cases were reported from Riyadh (4), Madinah (2), Al-Qassim (1), Assir (1), Taif (1), and Makkah (1) regions. The link below provides details of the 10 reported cases:
Nigeria is responding to successive yellow fever outbreaks, with nearly a three-fold increase in number of confirmed cases in 2019 compared to 2018, suggesting intensification of yellow fever virus transmission. Additionally, there have been cases reported in parts of the country that have confirmed cases for the first time since the outbreak started in September 2017. From 1 January through 10 December 2019, a total of 4,189 suspected yellow fever cases were reported from 604 of 774 Local Government Area (LGAs) across all the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria. Of the total 3,547 samples taken, 207 tested positive for yellow fever by Immunoglobulin M (IgM) in Nigerian network laboratories. In addition, 197 samples from 19 states were confirmed positive using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The case fatality rate for all cases (including suspected, probable and confirmed) is 5.1%, and 12.2% for confirmed cases.
A resurgence of measles cases has been seen in all WHO Regions since 2017. In the Asia Pacific Region, outbreaks of measles have been reported from countries where measles has previously been eliminated (including Australia, Cambodia, Japan, New Zealand, Republic of Korea) and in endemic countries with high incidence rates (including Lao PDR, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam).
On 1 May 2019, in response to increasing numbers of dengue fever cases in Pakistan and India, health authorities in Afghanistan heightened monitoring for the disease. As part of this increased vigilance, the Central Public Health Laboratory (CPHL) in Kabul began to broaden its investigation for possible cases of the disease, such as reviewing samples that tested negative for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) to see if they were positive for dengue. The laboratory performed differential diagnosis and tests on 40 samples that had tested negative for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF). Between 1 October to 4 December 2019, 14 out of the 40 samples tested positive for dengue fever by the CPHL (13 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and one by Immunoglobulin M (IgM)). Of the 14 confirmed cases of dengue fever, seven were presumably autochthonous as the persons had no travel history to dengue endemic countries. One of the seven autochthonous cases died due to hemorrhagic fever. Six other cases had traveled to dengue endemic countries, including four people to Pakistan and two people to India. One case had an unknown travel history. Out of the 14 cases, 12 (86%) were males, between the age of 21 to 55 years old.
Twenty-seven new confirmed cases were reported from 4 to 10 December in the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in North Kivu and Ituri provinces.
From 1 through 31 October 2019, the National IHR Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported 15 additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) infection and six associated deaths. The cases were reported from Assir (5 cases), Al-Qassim (3 cases), Riyadh (6 cases), and Taif (1 case) regions. Of the 15 cases reported, four were linked to two separate clusters. Cluster 1 involved a patient (case #1) and a health care worker (case #5) in Assir region. Cluster 2 involved a patient (case #12) and a health care worker (case #15) in Riyadh region. The link below provides details of the 15 reported cases:
Nine new confirmed cases were reported from 27 November to 3 December in the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in North Kivu and Ituri provinces. The confirmed cases in this week were reported from Mandima (56%, n=5) and Mabalako (44%, n=4) Health Zones. In the past two weeks, violence, widespread civil unrest, and targeted attacks have severely disrupted the Ebola response and restricted access to affected communities in multiple locations. As a result, several key activities of the response experienced diminished performance, including the volume of reported and investigated alerts and the number of contacts registered and followed (Figure 1, Figure 2). The volume of alerts from health zones affected by insecurity is lower than usual, and this has led to an overall reduction in the average number of alerts reported in the last seven days. Of the 3346 alerts reported, 96% were investigated within 24 hours.
Outbreaks of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) have been reported in several countries in West Africa, central Africa and Horn of Africa (for more information, please see the disease outbreak news published on 31 July 2019). This report provides a situational update on current cVDPV2 outbreaks in newly affected countries in Africa. No wild poliovirus has been detected on the continent since September 2016. In West Africa and the Lake Chad sub-region, a cVDPV2 outbreak originating from Jigawa state, Nigeria, continues to spread. Following detection of this outbreak in Cameroon, Ghana, Benin and the Republic of Niger earlier this year and in 2018, the virus has now been detected in Chad, Togo and Côte d’Ivoire.
On 6 November 2019, the Spanish authorities reported a likely sexual transmission of dengue between two men who have sex with men (MSM) in the municipality of Madrid in central Spain.
Sierra Leone health officials, supported by WHO, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other partners, are responding to an outbreak of Lassa fever. On 20 November 2019, WHO was informed by The Netherlands’ International Health Regulations (IHR) National Focal Point of one imported case of Lassa fever from Sierra Leone. The patient was a male doctor, a Dutch national who worked in a rural Masanga hospital in Tonkolili district, Northern province in Sierra Leone.